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This dashboard brings together data, trends, news, and other resources from Library Technology Guides describing the organization, its executive leadership, personnel employed, business history, as well as related features and news articles.

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Radarweg 29
Amsterdam, 1043 NX

Executive Leadership

photo of Youngsuk (YS) Chi
Youngsuk (YS) Chi
Non-executive Chairman
photo of Kumsal Bayazit
Kumsal Bayazit
Chief Executive Officer
photo of Ed Cassar
Ed Cassar
Chief Financial Officer
photo of Jill Luber
Jill Luber
Chief Technology Officer
photo of Jan bij de Weg
Jan bij de Weg
Senior Vice President and Global General Counsel
photo of Jan Herzhoff
Jan Herzhoff
President Health Markets
photo of Gino Ussi
Gino Ussi
President, Corporate Markets
photo of Judy Verses
Judy Verses
President, Academic and Government
photo of Anita Chandraprakash
Anita Chandraprakash
Executive Vice President, Operations
photo of Mirit Eldor
Mirit Eldor
Executive Vice President, Strategy
photo of Esra Erkal
Esra Erkal
Executive Vice President, Global Communications
photo of Mie-Yun Lee
Mie-Yun Lee
Chief of Staff and Executive Vice President Research Marketing

Company Ownership

Elsevier is part of RELX, a publicly traded company.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and Acquisitions for Elsevier

Documents or articles featuring Elsevier

Breeding, Marshall. Elsevier Acquires Bepress. September 2017. Smart Libraries Newsletter. In a move that continues its expansion into technologies and services supporting a diverse range of research activities, Elsevier has purchased bepress, a company best known for its repository solutions for academic libraries. Bepress, based in Berkeley, CA, offers a platform and services to support institutional repositories as well as a variety of tools to support editorial processes and to highlight and assess the impact of research publications. The acquisition of bepress represents Elsevier's latest investment in products outside its traditional role as a publisher of scientific literature. In recent years—likely in response to increased interest in open access, moderation of journal pricing, and other factors in the scholarly publishing industry—Elsevier has diversified its portfolio to include tools and services that tap into other aspects of the research process.

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News Announcements

May 8, 2024. Elsevier Introduces SciBite Chat, a transformative AI-Powered Semantic Search Tool for Life Sciences R&D. Elsevier, a global leader in information and analytics, announced the launch of SciBite Chat, a new AI-powered tool built atop SciBite Search, SciBite's award-winning platform. SciBite Chat uniquely combines the strength of semantic search for accurate and traceable information retrieval and Large Language Models (LLMs) to interpret natural language questions and generate answers. By combining these powerful technologies, SciBite Chat has the potential to transform the search experience, providing explainable results while understanding and summarizing human language effortlessly.

April 23, 2024. Elsevier appoints Dr Kieran West MBE as Executive Vice President of Strategy. Elsevier, a global leader in scientific information and analytics, announced today the appointment of Dr Kieran West MBE as Executive Vice President of Strategy, effective immediately. Most recently, he served as Strategy Director at Bupa Global and UK, a leading healthcare provider and insurer, where he was instrumental in shaping the company's strategic direction. Prior to his time at Bupa, he served as an Associate Partner at McKinsey, where he advised both domestic and global companies on achieving commercial success. He previously taught mathematics at King's College School, UK. His academic achievements include a PhD in History from the University of Cambridge, an MA in War Studies from King's College London, and a PGCE degree in Mathematics.

March 6, 2024. Elsevier and Iktos partner to deliver an AI-driven synthetic chemistry platform for drug discovery. Elsevier, a global leader in information and data analytics, has signed a multi-year agreement with Iktos( a company specializing in artificial intelligence for new drug discovery. The partnership will strengthen Elsevier's flagship chemistry solution, Reaxys, by combining the company's high-quality chemistry data with synthetic planning AI technologies developed by Iktos to accelerate chemistry research for pharmaceutical companies.

February 21, 2024. Elsevier and Vanderbilt University's Heard Libraries establish landmark five-year open access transformative agreement. Elsevier, a global leader in information analytics and scientific publishing, is pleased to announce a five-year read and publish agreement with Vanderbilt University's Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries that will advance open science and enhance access to scholarly research. The transformative agreement, which is effective through 2028, provides Vanderbilt researchers with access to high-quality research published in Elsevier's extensive portfolio of journals. Vanderbilt researchers will also enjoy expanded open access publishing options in those journals, enhancing the visibility and impact of their work. The agreement supports a sustainable scholarly publishing model that aligns with values of openness, inclusivity and equity.

February 21, 2024. Rutgers enters into transformative open access agreement with leading academic publisher Elsevier. Rutgers University announced a historic, transformative open-access partnership with Elsevier, a global leader in information, scientific research, and analytics that publishes leading academic journals including The Lancet and Cell. This agreement marks an important step toward making the results of Rutgers' research openly accessible, increasing its readership and impact, and ensuring it is globally and permanently available. The five-year arrangement managed by the Rutgers University Libraries will make over 4,600 journals, 1,400 of which are fully open access, accessible to the Rutgers community.

February 6, 2024. Elsevier launches Complete HeartX, the world's first heart education experience in spatial computing. Elsevier Health launched Complete HeartX, a groundbreaking educational tool designed exclusively for Apple Vision Pro, the world's first spatial computer. The tool unlocks an immersive and powerful experience that allows users to discover the heart like never before. Designed to take advantage of the unique capabilities of Apple Vision Pro, Complete HeartX seamlessly merges the digital and physical world. By being able to explore the heart in stunning detail, users can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Complete HeartX combines detailed 3D models, animations, images, videos, educational scenes and clinical simulations to make learning about the heart engaging and informative. The app is based on Elsevier's evidence-based content including Complete Anatomy, Osmosis and Gray's Anatomy and has been created by Elsevier's experts in anatomy and 3D modeling.

January 17, 2024. Launch of Scopus AI to help researchers navigate the world of research. Elsevier launched Scopus AI, a generative AI product to help researchers and research institutions get fast and accurate summaries and research insights that support collaboration and societal impact. Scopus AI is based on Scopus' trusted content from over 27,000 academic journals, from more than 7,000 publishers worldwide, with over 1.8 billion citations, and includes over 17 million author profiles. Scopus content is vetted by an independent board of world-renowned scientists and librarians who represent the major scientific disciplines. Since the alpha launch in August 2023, thousands of researchers across the world have tested Scopus AI.

January 12, 2024. Elsevier announces the appointment of Mirit Eldor to Managing Director of Life Sciences Solutions. Elsevier, a global leader in information and analytics, announced today the appointment of Mirit Eldor as Managing Director, Life Sciences Solutions. Elsevier's Life Sciences Solutions business serves pharmaceutical, biotech and life sciences companies around the world with trusted, data-led analytical insights that help research and development teams innovate effectively and efficiently using curated and validated scientific information.

December 19, 2023. Elsevier introduces digital enhancements to medical literature, revolutionizing article-based education. Elsevier, a global leader in evidence-based clinical practice content, research publishing, and information analytics, announced the launch of an exciting new feature aimed at improving medical literature by introducing videos to official journal publications. Enhanced Publications is the latest tool in Elsevier's portfolio aimed at bettering the clinician experience. It is fully peer-reviewed, indexed content and will allow physicians to access the wealth of information in select high-profile medical journals through sponsored video content.

December 4, 2023. Professor Sarah Main Joins Elsevier as Vice President for Academic and Government Relations, UK​. Elsevier announced the appointment of Professor Sarah Main as Vice President for Academic and Government Relations, UK effective December 1st, 2023. Professor Main brings a wealth of experience and expertise to her new role at Elsevier. With a distinguished career in scientific research and policy, she has played a pivotal role in advancing science and promoting collaboration between academia, industry, and government. In her new position, Professor Main will be responsible for guiding Elsevier's scientific strategy, fostering innovation, and ensuring the company continues to contribute significantly to the advancement of global research. Her deep understanding of the scientific landscape and commitment to open science align seamlessly with Elsevier's mission to support the global research community.

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Corporate Chronology

Jun 07, 2022 Elsevier acquires Interfolio
Elsevier has acquired Interfolio, a provider of advanced faculty information solutions for higher education, headquartered in Washington DC, US.

Nov 29, 2021 Elsevier acquires
Elsevier acquired Osmosis, a US-based visual learning platform that has simplified the complex learning journey for millions of current and future healthcare professionals and their patients around the world.

Dec 09, 2020 Elsevier acquires Shadow Health
Elsevier acquired Shadow Health, a Florida-based developer of virtual simulations in nursing and healthcare education.

Aug 21, 2020 Elsevier acquires SciBite
Elsevier acquired SciBite, a semantic AI company headquartered in Cambridge, UK. SciBite's solutions identify and extract scientific insights from structured and unstructured text and content, to identify key concepts such as drugs, proteins, companies, targets, and outcomes. This semantically-enriched, machine-readable data, helps SciBite's customers around the world make streamlined, more efficient decisions. SciBite was founded in 2011 by Dr. Lee Harland, who currently serves as Chief Scientific Officer at the company.

Mar 11, 2020 Elsevier acquires Authess
Elsevier acquired Authess, the Boston-based developer of an advanced performance-based competency assessment platform that evaluates how students solve complex, open-ended problems they would encounter on the job. Founded in 2015, Authess built a scalable platform for authoring, delivering and scoring performance-based competency assessments. The company's machine-learning models and data analytics observe students as they work through a task, capturing not just their answers but their behaviour, process and problem-solving approach.

Nov 27, 2019 Elsevier acquires 3D4Medical for $50.6 million
Elsevier acquired 3D4Medical, the global anatomy education company headquartered in Dublin, Ireland. 3D4Medical created Complete Anatomy, the world's most advanced 3D anatomy platform, revolutionizing how students, educators, health professionals and patients understand and interact with anatomy. With outstanding technology and design that pushes the boundaries of how people learn using advanced 3D visualization tools, Complete Anatomy has garnered more than a million registered users at more than 300 of the world's top universities.

Jul 29, 2019 Elsevier acquires Parity Computing
Elsevier signed a definitive agreement to acquire Parity Computing, a California-based business that employs artificial intelligence to provide high-accuracy entity resolution, profiling and recommendations for STM content and applications in the world of research. Parity provides disambiguation technology for Elsevier's abstract and indexing databases that help researchers, universities, national bodies and other stakeholders improve decision-making and answer critical questions. Resolving ambiguities in entities and relationships that appear in publications lays the foundation for the analytics and decision support capabilities of Scopus.

Feb 15, 2019 Kumsal Bayazit appointed Chief Executive Officer of Elsevier
Elsevier appointed Kumsal Bayazit as Chief Executive Officer effective February 15, 2019.

Dec 09, 2018 Elsevier acquires Science-Metrix
Elsevier has acquired Science-Metrix Inc., a research evaluation firm that provides science research evaluation and analytics to assess science and technology activities. Headquartered in Montréal, Canada, Science-Metrix is known for high-quality and independent bibliometric analysis and research evaluation.

Sep 10, 2018 Elsevier acquires Aries Systems
Elsevier completed its acquisition of Aries Systems, a leader in scientific publication workflow solutions headquartered outside Boston, Massachusetts. Aries' offerings are used by journals, books and other publications for manuscript submission, peer review, production tracking and eCommerce.

Apr 05, 2018 Elsevier launches Mendeley Data
Elsevier launched Mendeley Data, a new, cloud-based platform designed to help universities and researchers manage, share and showcase their research data. With Mendeley Data, researchers can safely record and share research data while improving its reuse via publication, while universities can showcase institutional outputs and improve their collaboration rate.

Jan 17, 2018 Elsevier acquires Via Oncology
Elsevier acquired Via Oncology, a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based company that provides decision support and best practices in cancer care management. A former subsidiary of UPMC, one of the nation's leading integrated healthcare delivery and financing systems, Via Oncology helps cancer centers demonstrate the value of their care to patients, referring physicians and payers by developing and implementing clinical pathways in collaboration with its network of more than 1,500 US cancer care providers.

Aug 02, 2017 Elsevier acquires Bepress
Elsevier has acquired bepress, a Berkeley, California-based business that helps academic libraries showcase and share their institutions' research for maximum impact. Founded by three University of California, Berkeley professors in 1999, bepress allows institutions to collect, organize, preserve and disseminate their intellectual output, including preprints, working papers, journals or specific articles, dissertations, theses, conference proceedings and a wide variety of other data.

Feb 02, 2017 Elsevier acquires Plum Analytics
Elsevier acquired Plum Analytics from EBSCO Information Services, a global information services company providing research and discovery platforms and access to premium content. The acquisition will enable Elsevier to significantly expand access to Plum Analytics’ altmetrics to more researchers and more institutions.

May 17, 2016 Elsevier acquires the Social Science Research Network
Elsevier acquires the Social Science Research Network and plans to strengthen it alongside Mendeley's technology platform

May 17, 2016 Elsevier acquires SSRN
Elsevier acquires Social Science Research Network, with plans to strengthen it alongside Mendeley's technology platform, marks a significant advancement for each community of users

Jul 01, 2015 Elsevier Acquires InferMed
Elsevier acquired InferMed, a London-based clinical decision support technology company. InferMed's Arezzo technology supports clinicians in choosing the most appropriate treatment path for each patient. Arezzo matches appropriate evidence-based guidelines with patient information and dynamically evaluates best-practice options in the light of current patient and disease information. Arezzo helps physicians improve care outcomes while taking unnecessary costs out of the system.

Feb 25, 2015 Reed Elsevier becomes RELX
From February 25, ownership of all Reed Elsevier businesses, subsidiaries and financing activities below the two listed parent companies, Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV, has been transferred to a new single group entity. This entity has been named RELX Group plc. RELX Group plc will continue to be owned by Reed Elsevier PLC, the London listing vehicle, and Reed Elsevier NV, the Amsterdam listing vehicle, although we will be asking shareholders at the Annual General Meeting to change their names to RELX PLC and RELX NV respectively.

Feb 25, 2015 Elsevier parent company Reed Elsevier becomes RELX Group
All Reed Elsevier businesses, subsidiaries and financing activities below the two listed parent companies, Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV, has been transferred to a new single group entity. This entity has been named RELX Group plc. RELX Group plc will continue to be owned by Reed Elsevier PLC, the London listing vehicle, and Reed Elsevier NV, the Amsterdam listing vehicle, although we will be asking shareholders at the Annual General Meeting to change their names to RELX PLC and RELX NV respectively.

Jan 12, 2015 Elsevier acquires Newsflo
Elsevier has acquired Newsflo, a London-based company that helps researchers and academic institutions to measure the wider impact of their work by tracking and analyzing media coverage of their publications and findings.

Jul 12, 2014 Elsevier acquires Amirsys
Elsevier acquired Amirsys. Focused on visually oriented medical disciplines like radiology, pathology and anatomy, Amirsys' global solutions give healthcare providers the expert information and clinical decision support (CDS) tools to make informed, expert and evidence-based diagnoses. Amirsys also provides learning environments that help those training in these disciplines to sharpen their diagnostic skills and increase their knowledge.

Aug 12, 2013 Elsevier acquires Woodhead Publishing
Elsevier announced it has acquired Woodhead Publishing Limited, an award-winning, UK-based publisher known for its high-quality content in the fields of materials science, food science, engineering, energy & environmental technology, textile technology and biomedicine. The acquisition of Woodhead Publishing also includes Chandos Publishing, which is known for its strong publishing program in library information science and Asian studies.

Aug 07, 2013 Elsevier acquires certain book assets of Gulf Publishing Company
Elsevier acquired certain book assets of Gulf Publishing Company. The portfolio of 32 books includes petroleum engineering titles in drilling, pipeline, oil and gas, and safety. The GPC titles are for professionals in upstream oil and gas engineering and cover drilling, recovery methods, reservoir management, processing, and pipeline transmission.

Apr 09, 2013 Elsevier acquires Mendeley
Elsevier announced the acquisition of Mendeley, a London-based company that operates a global research management and collaboration platform. Researchers worldwide use Mendeley's desktop and cloud-based tools to manage and annotate documents, create citations and bibliographies, collaborate on research projects and network with fellow academics.

Jan 08, 2013 Elsevier acquires Aureus Sciences
Elsevier acquired Aureus Sciences, a Paris, France based privately held company that provides databases and information tools to pharmaceutical and biotech companies. Formed in 2002, Aureus Sciences gathers unique and high quality quantitative biological activity data for major therapeutic drug targets. This content enables researchers to identify the most promising compounds, repurpose existing compounds and identify targets with which the new compounds might interact.

Jan 07, 2013 Elsevier acquires Knovel
Elsevier announced the acquisition of Knovel Corp. New York City-based Knovel provides a web-based application that integrates technical information with analytical and search tools to drive innovation and deliver answers engineers can trust. Founded in 2001, Knovel has developed a deep knowledge of the engineering community and is a valuable tool for thousands of engineers and students in more than 700 corporations and engineering schools worldwide. Knovel integrates information and data from more than 100 engineering societies and publishers and makes it highly searchable and interactive so that engineers can easily manipulate the data they find and use it in other engineering applications.

Sep 10, 2012 Elsevier acquires ExitCare
Elsevier acquired ExitCare, an enterprise-wide solution for patient education and discharge instructions. ExitCare provides peer-reviewed patient education and discharge instructions to support clinicians, empower patients and help providers meet their patients' educational needs.

Aug 15, 2012 Elsevier Acquires Atira and its Pure research information system
Elsevier announced the acquisition of Atira, a provider of software and tools that help academic institutions and researchers manage and improve their research outcomes. Atira complements Elsevier's SciVal by expanding the scope of data to report on research activities across an academic institution, and by broadening the range of tools and dashboards to analyse those data. Atira's main product, Pure, is a flexible research information system that enables the planning, evaluation and reporting of research activities.

Jul 2012 Taylor & Francis acquires Focal Press from Elsevier

Jan 12, 2012 Elsevier acquires QUOSA
Elsevier acquired QUOSA a content management and workflow productivity solutions provider for researchers and information managers. QUOSA's current solutions and platform, including its Information Manager and Virtual Library, will continue to be supported. QUOSA's technological capabilities will be developed into Elsevier-branded solutions, raising the efficiency of the search and discovery process. They will also allow researchers and information professionals to manage information more efficiently at the various stages of the research workflow including organizing, archiving and sharing.

Dec 08, 2011 Elsevier acquires Ariadne Genomics
Elsevier acquiredf the business assets of Ariadne Genomics, a provider of pathway analysis tools and semantic technologies for life science researchers. Ariadne will be integrated with Elsevier's Corporate Markets division.

May 09, 2011 Elsevier acquires Fisterra.Com
Elsevier acquired, an award winning, widely used e-clinical reference solution in Spain. Fisterra was launched in 2002 by two primary care doctors and a medical librarian in response to the need for an online short answer Spanish language reference solution to help primary care physicians. provides access to Fisterrae, an advanced e-clinical reference solution that integrates support resources for health professionals in a local language platform. Fisterrae is written by doctors and pharmacists and is kept permanently up to date by following medical journals, reviews by the Cochrane Library and the most important databases of clinical practice guidelines.

Oct 18, 2010 Omnicom Group acquires Excerpta Medica from Elsevier
Omnicom Group's Diversified Agency Services has acquired Amsterdam-based medical communications agency Excerpta Medica from Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier Group plc. Excerpta Medica will become a division of DAS's Adelphi, a group of businesses that provide multiperspective healthcare solutions to the pharmaceutical industry. Excerpta will continue to operate as an independent business, with offices in Amsterdam, New Jersey and London.

Jun 09, 2010 Elsevier acquires Collexis
Elsevier acquired assets from Collexis Holdings, a leading developer of semantic technology and knowledge discovery software. The combination of Elsevier's content and Collexis' semantic technology will provide institutions and researchers new ways to collaborate, showcase accomplishments and improve grant related workflow efficiencies.

Jan 05, 2010 Elsevier acquires NurseSquared
Elsevier acquired NurseSquared, the leading electronic health record (EHR) training product in the market that teaches students how to properly document using a simulated EHR. The NurseSquared training tool allows Elsevier to offer a more complete curriculum solution, including an EHR training tool, to academic customers.

Jan 20, 2009 Elsevier acquires William Andrew Publishing
Elsevier acquired the publishing assets of William Andrew, Inc. Over the last 18 months, Elsevier and William Andrew have built a valuable strategic alliance including print distribution of William Andrew books globally outside of North America and electronic distribution of William Andrew content on Elsevier's globally renowned electronic publishing platforms: Science Direct and Engineering Village.

Oct 2007 Symyx Technologies, Inc. acquires MDL from Elsevier

Nov 21, 2006 Francisco Partners acquires Endeavor Information Systems from Elsevier
The Ex Libris Group, a leading worldwide developer and provider of high-performance applications for libraries and information centers, today announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement with Francisco Partners, one of the world's largest technology-focused private equity funds, for the acquisition of 100% of the Company's shares. This acquisition will enable Ex Libris to continue expanding its geographical reach and explore acquisition opportunities for complementary products in the library automation and e-resource markets.

Oct 13, 2006 Reed Elsevier sells Harcourt Education, Harcourt Trade and Greenwood-Heinemann Divisions to Houghton Mifflin Company
Houghton Mifflin Company and its parent, Education Media and Publishing Group Limited, today announced that Houghton Mifflin has completed the acquisition of the Harcourt Education, Harcourt Trade and Greenwood-Heinemann divisions from Reed Elsevier

May 26, 2005 Reed Elsevier acquires Netter publications from MediMedia
Reed Elsevier announces binding offer to acquire MediMedia's European and US Netter professional medical publishing businesses for €270

2004 Elsevier launches SCOPUS
Scopus - covering 14,000 scientific titles plus 167 million scientific web pages, and delivering the largest collection of abstracts ever collected online in one place, going back forty years - is now commercially available for trial and sale to any institution.

2002 Reed Elsevier becomes Elsevier

Apr 2000 Elsevier Science acquires Endeavor Information Systems
In April 2000, the founders of Endeavor Information Systtems sold the company to Elsevier Science, an Amsterdam-based multinational publisher of scientific scholarly literature.

Apr 1999 Elsevier acquires Cell Press from Benjamin Lewin

1998 Reed Elsevier acquires The Beilstein Database, BioMedNet, ChemWeb, Engineering Information from Current Science Group.

Mar 24, 1997 Reed Elsevier acquires MDL Information Systems
Elsevier Science to acquire MDL Information Systems for $320 Million. MDL Information Systems, Inc. is a leading provider of integrated solutions that accelerate high-throughput discovery and development in the life science and chemical industries. MDL's software systems, databases and services help customers manage, communicate, and analyse the volumes of data associated with modern R&D workflows. With applications supporting chemical and biological information management, bioinformatics, automated synthesis and screening, and materials science, MDL is committed to keeping pace with new technologies in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries.

Mar 1997 Elsevier launched ScienceDirect
Elsevier launched ScienceDirect, its platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature.

1997 Elsevier acquires JAI Press

Jan 01, 1993 Reed International merges with Elsevier NV to form Reed Elsevier PLC
Reed Elsevier came into existence on January 1, 1993 when Reed International P.L.C., a UK company, and Elsevier NV, a Dutch company, contributed all their businesses to two jointly owned companies; Reed Elsevier plc, an operating company and Elsevier Reed BV, a finance company. Reed Elsevier is the name used to refer to the combination of Reed International P.L.C. and Elsevier NV and the two jointly owned subsidiaries. Under the equalization arrangements agreed at the time of the merger, ordinary shareholders in Reed International P.L.C. and Elsevier NV enjoy substantially equivalent dividend and capital rights with respect to their ordinary shares in the net income and net assets of Reed Elsevier.

1991 Elsevier launches The University Licensing Project (TULIP)

1991 Elsevier purchases Pergamon Press from Maxwell for $440 million
See New York Times:

1991 Elsevier acquires The Lancet from Hodder & Stoughton

Sep 1986 Reed International acquires Technical Publishing Co. from Dun & Bradstreet for $250 million
Cahners Publishing Company, part of Reed International, acquired Technical Publishing Co. from Dun & Bradstreet for $250 million

1981 Elsevier acquires Focal Press

1979 Elsevier acquires Congressional Information Services

1979 Elsevier acquires Congressional Information Service and Greenwood Publishing

1972 Excerpta Medica acquired by Elsevier

1971 Elsevier Publishing Company NV, North Holland Publishing Company, and Excerpta Medica merge to form Excerpta Medica

1971 Elsevier acquires Excerpta Medica
Elsevier acquires the medical abstracting service and databank Excerpta Medica.

Jan 01, 1970 Elsevier Science Publishers acquires North Holland Publishing Company

1962 Elsevier Publishing Company launched in the United States and United Kingdom

1880 Elsevier was founded as a small Dutch publisher (NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier)
Elsevier founded in Rotterdam by five Dutch booksellers, led by Jacobus George Robbers.